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Welcome to Diabetologia

Diabetologia publishes original clinical and experimental research within the field of diabetes. We are interested in papers that convey new information or insight into any aspect of the condition, ranging from basic science to clinical applications. These are judged in terms of their scientific quality, novelty, relevance and interest to our broadly based readership.

Statement of Principle

Joint Statement of Principle from the EASD, ADA, AACE and TES (November 2014)

In the News

New NICE thresholds for diabetes in pregnancy could miss up to 4,000 women per year in UK at risk of complications

Download this new research by Dr Claire Meek from the University of Cambridge and Cambridge University Hospitals Foundation Trust and colleagues.
For further information contact Dr Meek (clm70@cam.ac.uk).


(posted online 22.01h BST Thursday 11th June 2015)

Current issue: July 2015

July 2015 cover

Click here to view this month's contents

The assorted sodas in the cover picture are an example of sugar-sweetened beverages, a drinks category that classically includes fizzy drinks, squashes, cordials, juice drinks and sports/energy drinks. In the present issue of Diabetologia, O'Connor et al report that there is a 20% higher risk of type 2 diabetes associated with each extra serving per day habitually of not only sugary soft drinks but also sweetened milk drinks, independent of adiposity and total energy intake. The authors estimate that replacing a daily serving of a sugary soft drink or sugary milk drink with water or unsweetened tea or coffee could reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 14−25%.

Cover credit: © Brent Hofacker − Fotolia.com

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Up front

Juleen Zierath

Competition for publication in Diabetologia is greater than ever, and less than 20% of papers are accepted. Of all the high-quality papers that appear in this month's issue I want to share with you five articles that I find to be of particular interest. These will be featured 'up front' in the print issue and here on our website. Juleen R. Zierath, Editor


A model for the role of gut bacteria in the development of autoimmunity for type 1 diabetes
by Austin G. Davis-Richardson, Eric W. Triplett

In this issue, Davis-Richardson and Triplett review the current evidence for the role of the gut microbiome in the development of autoimmunity for type 1 diabetes. Evidence from early animal studies leading up to recent studies of human cohorts is discussed. The authors examine the challenges and merits of human cohort designs, and highlight a need to control for confounding factors such as diet and geography. A model of the microbiome's role in disease progression is proposed for future testing that suggests interplay between the gut microbiome and diet. Bacterial butyrate production is considered crucial for maintenance of an intact epithelial layer in the gut. The authors also suggest that future studies consider the methylome of the microbiome and its possible association with autoimmunity for type 1 diabetes. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Dietary fibre and incidence of type 2 diabetes in eight European countries: the EPIC-InterAct Study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies
by The InterAct Consortium

Dietary intake of fibre, particularly cereal fibre, has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the majority of previous studies have been carried out in the USA, where the level and sources of fibre intake may differ substantially from those in European countries. In this issue, the InterAct Consortium reports the results of an analysis of data from the EPIC-InterAct Study and a meta-analysis of 19 prospective studies. In the EPIC-InterAct Study, participants with a total fibre intake of >26 g/day had an 18% lower risk of type 2 diabetes than those with an intake of <19 g/day after adjustment for other lifestyle factors and dietary factors. When further adjusted for BMI, the association was no longer significant (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81, 1.03). In the updated meta-analysis the risk of type 2 diabetes was reduced by 9% and 25% for each 10 g/day increase in total fibre and cereal fibre, respectively. Taken together, these results provide evidence that a higher fibre intake is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, and that this association is at least partially mediated by body weight. This article is the subject of a commentary in this issue by Whincup and Donin. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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The effect of anaemia and abnormalities of erythrocyte indices on HbA1c analysis: a systematic review
by Emma English, Iskandar Idris, Georgina Smith, Ketan Dhatariya, Eric Kilpatrick, W. Garry John

HbA1c measurement is widely used for monitoring glycaemic control in people with diabetes and has recently been advocated for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. One of the major confounders of HbA1c use is the presence of anaemia; however, the type and the degree to which anaemia affects HbA1c is not clear. In this issue, English et al report that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia may lead to a spuriously elevated HbA1c level, and may thus produce a false-positive diagnosis of diabetes. However, non-iron deficiency anaemias can lead to an artificially low HbA1c level and may lead to a false-negative result, where a diagnosis of diabetes would be missed. The authors conclude that there is no clear evidence to suggest at what levels anaemia can give rise to these effects on HbA1c, and that there does not appear to be a single ideal test to identify those patients for whom this could be an issue, and so further research is needed in this area. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring of parents without diabetes regardless of ethnicity
by Hozan I. Hussen, Martina Persson, Tahereh Moradi

In this issue, Moradi and colleagues investigated whether maternal weight influences the risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring. Over 1 million children born in Sweden between 1992 and 2004 were followed through Swedish national registers from birth until 2009. Almost 6,000 children developed type 1 diabetes during the study period. Most of them were born to parents from within Scandinavia, but around 300 were the children of migrants from outside the Nordic region. The study confirmed previous findings-children are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if either of the parents has diabetes. The novel finding was that children who had not inherited the disease from their parents had a 33% higher risk of developing the disease if their mother had been obese during the first trimester. This could explain why there is an increasing number of cases of the disease and why these are mostly in children with no hereditary risk. Based on their findings, the authors suggest that expectant mothers should try to avoid becoming obese to reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes in their children. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Prospective associations and population impact of sweet beverage intake and type 2 diabetes, and effects of substitutions with alternative beverages
by Laura O'Connor, Fumiaki Imamura, Marleen A. H. Lentjes, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nicholas J. Wareham, Nita G. Forouhi

The habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been linked to an increased risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes, but whether sweetened-milk beverages also contribute is unknown, and there is insufficient evidence on alternative beverages considered to be more healthy. In this issue, O'Connor et al present findings from the EPIC-Norfolk study. They report a 20% higher risk of type 2 diabetes per extra serving per day habitually, of not only soft drinks, but also sweetened-milk beverages, independent of adiposity and total energy intake. Replacing a daily serving of a soft drink or sweetened-milk drink with water or unsweetened tea or coffee was estimated to reduce the incidence of diabetes by 14−25%. There was a positive dose-response relationship with %energy from total sweet beverage consumption. The authors conclude that these findings support the WHO recommendation to restrict %energy intake from free sugars, and specifically suggest that limiting the consumption of sweet beverages and replacing them with drinking water or unsweetened tea/coffee may help to prevent type 2 diabetes. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Inside this issue

Commentary

Cereal fibre and type 2 diabetes: time now for randomised controlled trials?
Peter H. Whincup, Angela S. Donin

Review

A model for the role of gut bacteria in the development of autoimmunity for type 1 diabetes
Austin G. Davis-Richardson, Eric W. Triplett

Systematic Reviews/Meta-analyses

Dietary fibre and incidence of type 2 diabetes in eight European countries: the EPIC-InterAct Study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies
The InterAct Consortium

The effect of anaemia and abnormalities of erythrocyte indices on HbA1c analysis: a systematic review
Emma English, Iskandar Idris, Georgina Smith, Ketan Dhatariya, Eric S. Kilpatrick, W. Garry John

Articles

Clinical Science and Care

A proposal for the use of uniform diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes in Europe: an opinion paper by the European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG)
Katrien Benhalima, Chantal Mathieu, Peter Damm, André Van Assche, Roland Devlieger, Gernot Desoye, Rosa Corcoy, Tahir Mahmood, Jacky Nizard, Charles Savona-Ventura, Fidelma Dunne

Age at the time of sulfonylurea initiation influences treatment outcomes in KCNJ11 -related neonatal diabetes
Brian W. Thurber, David Carmody, Elizabeth C. Tadie, Ashley N. Pastore, Jazzmyne T. Dickens, Kristen E. Wroblewski, Rochelle N. Naylor, Louis H. Philipson, Siri Atma W. Greeley, the United States Neonatal Diabetes Working Group

The prediction of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus using lipidomics
Martha Lappas, Piyushkumar A. Mundra, Gerard Wong, Kevin Huynh, Debra Jinks, Harry M. Georgiou, Michael Permezel, Peter J. Meikle

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and microvascular complications 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a case–control study
Short Communication
Alexander D. Miras, Ling Ling Chuah, Nofal Khalil, Alessia Nicotra, Amoolya Vusirikala, Najah Baqai, Christopher Graham, Saranya Ravindra, Gerassimos Lascaratos, Nick Oliver, Carel W. le Roux

Incidence and remission of type 2 diabetes in relation to degree of obesity at baseline and 2 year weight change: the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study
Kajsa Sjöholm, Pia Pajunen, Peter Jacobson, Kristjan Karason, C. David Sjöström, Jarl Torgerson, Lena M. S. Carlsson, Lars Sjöström, Markku Peltonen

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Epidemiology

Increased metabolic risk in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes: the EPICOM study
Zuzana Vlachová, Birgitte Bytoft, Sine Knorr, Tine D. Clausen, Rikke Beck Jensen, Elisabeth R. Mathiesen, Kurt Højlund, Per Ovesen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Claus H. Gravholt, Peter Damm, Dorte M. Jensen

Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring of parents without diabetes regardless of ethnicity
Hozan I. Hussen, Martina Persson, Tahereh Moradi

Prospective associations and population impact of sweet beverage intake and type 2 diabetes, and effects of substitutions with alternative beverages
Laura O’Connor, Fumiaki Imamura, Marleen A. H. Lentjes, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nicholas J. Wareham, Nita G. Forouhi

γ-Glutamyltransferase, but not markers of hepatic fibrosis, is associated with cardiovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study
Joanne R. Morling, Jonathan A. Fallowfield, Rachel M. Williamson, Christine M. Robertson, Stephen Glancy, Indra N. Guha, Mark W. J. Strachan, Jackie F. Price

Effect of atorvastatin on C-reactive protein and benefits for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: analyses from the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Trial
Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu, Shona J. Livingstone, Valentine Charlton-Menys, D. John Betteridge, Graham A. Hitman, H. Andrew W. Neil, Weihang Bao, David A. DeMicco, Gregory M. Preston, John H. Fuller, Coen D. A. Stehouwer, Casper G. Schalkwijk, Paul N. Durrington, Helen M. Colhoun, on behalf of the CARDS Investigators

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Islet Studies

Human islet function following 20 years of cryogenic biobanking
Jocelyn E. Manning Fox, James Lyon, Xiao Qing Dai, Robert C. Wright, Julie Hayward, Martijn van de Bunt, Tatsuya Kin, A. M. James Shapiro, Mark I. McCarthy, Anna L. Gloyn, Mark D. Ungrin, Jonathan R. Lakey, Norm M. Kneteman, Garth L. Warnock, Gregory S. Korbutt, Raymond V. Rajotte, Patrick E. MacDonald

LKB1 couples glucose metabolism to insulin secretion in mice
Accalia Fu, Karine Robitaille, Brandon Faubert, Courtney Reeks, Xiao-Qing Dai, Alexandre B. Hardy, Krishana S. Sankar, Svetlana Ogrel, Osama Y. Al-Dirbashi, Jonathan V. Rocheleau, Michael B. Wheeler, Patrick E. MacDonald, Russell Jones, Robert A. Screaton

Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8)/betatrophin overexpression does not increase beta cell proliferation in mice
Aaron R. Cox, Carol J. Lam, Claire W. Bonnyman, Julia Chavez, Jacqueline S. Rios, Jake A. Kushner

Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase is involved in stimulus-secretion coupling and endogenous ROS formation in murine beta cells
Armin Edalat, Philipp Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Cita Bauer, Sabrina Undank, Peter Krippeit-Drews, Gisela Drews, Martina Düfer

Orexin A regulates plasma insulin and leptin levels in a time-dependent manner following a glucose load in mice
Jae-Hyung Park, Hae-Min Shim, Ann-Yae Na, Jae-Hoon Bae, Seung-Soon Im, Dae-Kyu Song

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Metabolism

Polyphenol-rich diets improve glucose metabolism in people at high cardiometabolic risk: a controlled randomised intervention trial
Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Giovanni Pacini, Giuseppina Costabile, Claudia Vetrani, Marilena Vitale, Ettore Griffo, Angela Giacco, Claudia De Natale, Sara Cocozza, Giuseppe Della Pepa, Andrea Tura, Gabriele Riccardi, Angela A. Rivellese

Are the metabolic changes of pregnancy reversible in the first year postpartum?
Erica K. Berggren, Larraine Presley, Saeid B. Amini, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon, Patrick M. Catalano

Dysregulation of muscle glycogen synthase in recovery from exercise in type 2 diabetes
Andreas J. T. Pedersen, Janne R. Hingst, Martin Friedrichsen, Jonas M. Kristensen, Kurt Højlund, Jørgen F. P. Wojtaszewski

The receptor CD44 is associated with systemic insulin resistance and proinflammatory macrophages in human adipose tissue
Li Fen Liu, Keiichi Kodama, Ke Wei, Lorna L. Tolentino, Okmi Choi, Edgar G. Engleman, Atul J. Butte, Tracey McLaughlin

Subcutaneous fat transplantation alleviates diet-induced glucose intolerance and inflammation in mice
Samantha L. Hocking, Rebecca L. Stewart, Amanda E. Brandon, Eurwin Suryana, Ella Stuart, Emily M. Baldwin, Ganesh A. Kolumam, Zora Modrusan, Jagath R. Junutula, Jenny E. Gunton, Michael Medynskyj, Sinead P. Blaber, Elisabeth Karsten, Benjamin R. Herbert, David E. James, Gregory J. Cooney, Michael M. Swarbrick

The limited storage capacity of gonadal adipose tissue directs the development of metabolic disorders in male C57Bl/6J mice
Lianne van Beek, Jan B. van Klinken, Amanda C. M. Pronk, Andrea D. van Dam, Eline Dirven, Patrick C. N. Rensen, Frits Koning, Ko Willems van Dijk, Vanessa van Harmelen

Abrogation of adenosine A1 receptor signalling improves metabolic regulation in mice by modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses
Ting Yang, Xiang Gao, Monica Sandberg, Christa Zollbrecht, Xing-Mei Zhang, Michael Hezel, Ming Liu, Maria Peleli, En-Yin Lai, Robert A. Harris, A. Erik G. Persson, Bertil B. Fredholm, Leif Jansson, Mattias Carlström

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Pathophysiology and Complications

Overexpression of cutaneous mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in recent-onset type 2 diabetes
Short Communication
Dan Ziegler, Alexander Strom, Jutta Brüggemann, Iris Ziegler, Bernd Ringel, Sonja Püttgen, Michael Roden, for the GDS Group

Higher glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in childhood predict adverse cardiovascular risk in early adulthood: the Pune Children’s Study
Chittaranjan S. Yajnik, Prachi A. Katre, Suyog M. Joshi, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Dattatray S. Bhat, Himangi G. Lubree, Nilam Memane, Arun S. Kinare, Anand N. Pandit, Sheila A. Bhave, Ashish Bavdekar, Caroline H. D. Fall

Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in older people with type 2 diabetes
Insa Feinkohl, Markéta Keller, Christine M. Robertson, Joanne R. Morling, Stela McLachlan, Brian M. Frier, Ian J. Deary, Mark W. J. Strachan, Jackie F. Price

Pancreatic adipose tissue infiltration, parenchymal steatosis and beta cell function in humans
Paul Begovatz, Chrysi Koliaki, Katharina Weber, Klaus Strassburger, Bettina Nowotny, Peter Nowotny, Karsten Müssig, Jürgen Bunke, Giovanni Pacini, Julia Szendrödi, Michael Roden

Peptide-based inhibition of IκB kinase/nuclear factor-κB pathway protects against diabetes-associated nephropathy and atherosclerosis in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes
Ainhoa Oguiza, Carlota Recio, Iolanda Lazaro, Beñat Mallavia, Julia Blanco, Jesus Egido, Carmen Gomez-Guerrero

Deletion of the gene for adiponectin accelerates diabetic nephropathy in the Ins2 +/C96Y mouse
Fei Fang, Eun-Hui Bae, Amanda Hu, George C. Liu, Xiaohua Zhou, Vanessa Williams, Nicholas Maksimowski, Catherine Lu, Ana Konvalinka, Rohan John, James W. Scholey

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Letters

Comparison of HOMA-IR, HOMA-ß% and disposition index between US white men and Japanese men in Japan in the ERA JUMP study: was the calculation of disposition index legitimate?
Keishi Yamauchi, Yuka Sato, Yasuto Nakasone, Toru Aizawa

Comparison of HOMA-IR, HOMA-ß% and disposition index between US white men and Japanese men in Japan in the ERA JUMP study: was the calculation of disposition index legitimate? Reply to Yamauchi K, Sato Y, Nakasone Y et al [letter]
Vasudha Ahuja, Akira Sekikawa

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Erratum

Erratum to: Analysis of peri-islet CD45-positive leucocytic infiltrates in long-standing type 1 diabetic patients
Shiva Reddy, Nina Zeng, Hussam Al-Diery, Doran Jung, Clifton Yeu, Maximilian O. Joret, Mervyn J. Merrilees, Fiona Wu

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