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Welcome to Diabetologia

Diabetologia publishes original clinical and experimental research within the field of diabetes. We are interested in papers that convey new information or insight into any aspect of the condition, ranging from basic science to clinical applications. These are judged in terms of their scientific quality, novelty, relevance and interest to our broadly based readership.

In the News

Age and diabetes duration linked to risk of death and macrovascular complications, but only diabetes duration linked to risk of microvascular complications

Download this new research by Associate Professor Sophia Zoungas from The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Australia, and colleagues.
For further information contact Associate Professor Sophia Zoungas (szoungas@georgeinstitute.org.au) or Professor Simon Heller (s.heller@sheffield.ac.uk).


(posted online 22.01 h BST Thursday 11th September 2014)

Study of almost 900,000 people shows prediabetes increases the risk of cancer by 15%

Download this new research by Professor Yuli Huang from The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Daliang Town, China, and colleagues.
For further information contact Professor Yuli Huang (hyuli821@163.com).


(posted online 22.01 h BST Monday 8th September 2014)

Current issue: October 2014

October 2014 cover

Click here to view this month's contents

The cover picture shows a colour-enhanced electron micrograph of a taste bud in a human tongue. Taste cells, which express the taste receptor, are found in the taste buds. The binding of tastant to its corresponding taste receptor results in a signal being sent to the brain to recognise the specific taste sensation. In the present issue of Diabetologia Kim et al report that bitter taste receptors are also expressed in human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells. The stimulation of intestinal bitter taste receptors in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes induced the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1, thus lowering blood glucose levels.

Cover credit: OMIKRON/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

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Up front

Juleen Zierath

Competition for publication in Diabetologia is greater than ever, and less than 20% of papers are accepted. Of all the high-quality papers that appear in this month's issue I want to share with you five articles that I find to be of particular interest. These will be featured 'up front' in the print issue and here on our website. Juleen R. Zierath, Editor


Potential viral pathogenic mechanism in human type 1 diabetes
by Darius A. Schneider, Matthias G. von Herrath

Whether viral infections can cause diabetes has long been debated. In this issue, Schneider and von Herrath review the viral mechanisms potentially involved in type 1 diabetes, and discuss how these mechanisms may explain the hallmark features of early type 1 diabetes or affect the natural history of the disease. Although the most extensively studied mechanism to date involves infection of beta cells, there are many other potential mechanisms, including infection of exocrine pancreatic cells, and the infection of cells at remote locations, such as dendritic cells and gut cells. The flip side-a potential protective effect of viral infections against diabetes-is also discussed. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Durable change in glycaemic control following intensive management of type 2 diabetes in the ACCORD clinical trial
by Zubin Punthakee, Michael E. Miller, Debra L. Simmons, Matthew C. Riddle, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, David J. Brillon, Richard M. Bergenstal, Peter J. Savage, Irene Hramiak, Joseph F. Largay, Ajay Sood, Hertzel C. Gerstein, for the ACCORD Group of Investigators

Type 2 diabetes is traditionally viewed and managed as a disease of progressively deteriorating glucose homeostasis requiring more complex treatments over time. This paradigm is shifting, with studies of bariatric surgery and short-term intensive insulin therapy showing subsequent maintenance of glycaemic control with less medication. However, the effect of achieving near-normal glycaemia with intensive multimodal therapy in longstanding poorly controlled diabetes is unknown. In this issue, Punthakee et al report on glycaemic control in the intensive glycaemic treatment group of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, 1 year after relaxing therapy to a standard management approach. They found that those who had achieved a lower HbA1c level at the end of intensive therapy had greater reductions in glucose-lowering medications and were more likely to have tight glycaemic control 1 year after therapy relaxation. Whether these findings are due to changes in biology or behaviour remain unknown, but they indicate that glucose homeostasis can be durably improved after effective time-limited intensive glycaemic management. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Combined effect of physical activity and leisure time sitting on long-term risk of incident obesity and metabolic risk factor clustering
by Joshua A. Bell, Mark Hamer, G. David Batty, Archana Singh-Manoux, Séverine Sabia, Mika Kivimaki

Inactive lifestyles are characterised by insufficient physical activity and excessive leisure time sitting. In this issue, Bell et al report on an analysis of their combined effects on the long-term risk of developing obesity and metabolic ill health among 3,670 British government workers. Their results suggest that physical activity and leisure time sitting interact to affect the risk of obesity, with protective effects of high physical activity dependent upon low levels of leisure time sitting. Adults reporting both high physical activity and low leisure time sitting had nearly four times lower odds of becoming obese after 5 years compared with those reporting both low physical activity and high leisure time sitting. Intermediate levels of both behaviours were protective against developing metabolic risk factor clustering, although effects among more active groups were less clear. Together, these findings offer new insight into the behavioural determinants of adverse metabolic change. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Mechanisms behind the superior effects of interval vs continuous training on glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial
by Kristian Karstoft, Kamilla Winding, Sine H. Knudsen, Noemi G. James, Maria M. Scheel, Jesper Olesen, Jens J. Holst, Bente K. Pedersen, Thomas P. J. Solomon

Interval training programmes have emerged as the more efficient way to improve glycaemic control compared with continuous training programmes in individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the underlying reasons for this are unclear. In this issue, Karstoft et al report that 4 months of interval walking training is associated with greater improvements in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal compared with continuous walking training. One of the strengths of this study is the careful and successful matching of training volume and mean training intensity between the interval and continuous walking training groups; thus, these factors can be ruled out as being responsible for the differential outcome. These findings may help to develop more efficient training programmes for managing glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Retinal vascular fractals predict long-term microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus: the Danish Cohort of Pediatric Diabetes 1987 (DCPD1987)
by Rebecca Broe, Malin L. Rasmussen, Ulrik Frydkjaer-Olsen, Birthe S. Olsen, Henrik B. Mortensen, Tunde Peto, Jakob Grauslund

Alterations in the retinal vascular architecture have long been thought to indicate the development of diabetic microvasculopathy. However, most research has focused on specific aspects of the retinal network, such as vessel calibre, rather than the vasculature as a whole. Because the retinal vasculature has a branching pattern with properties of self-similarity, it can be considered a fractal structure. In this issue, Broe et al report on the use of fractal analysis to calculate a global measure of the complexity and density of the retinal vessels in a paediatric cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes to investigate whether vascular complexity relates to microvasculopathy. They found that a lower vascular fractal dimension, i.e. lower vascular complexity, was predictive of the 16 year incidence of diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy. These results suggest that the major complications in type 1 diabetes share a pathogenic pathway, indicating that retinal imaging could be a useful tool in early overall risk stratification in diabetes. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Inside this issue

Commentary

Diabetes and bone fracture: risk factors for old and young
Peter Vestergaard

Review

Potential viral pathogenic mechanism in human type 1 diabetes
Darius A. Schneider, Matthias G. von Herrath

Articles

Clinical Science and Care

Mortality and morbidity in relation to changes in albuminuria, glucose status and systolic blood pressure: an analysis of the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND studies
Roland E. Schmieder, Rudolph Schutte, Helmut Schumacher, Michael Böhm, Giuseppe Mancia, Michael A. Weber, Matthew McQueen, Koon Teo, Salim Yusuf

Durable change in glycaemic control following intensive management of type 2 diabetes in the ACCORD clinical trial
Zubin Punthakee, Michael E. Miller, Debra L. Simmons, Matthew C. Riddle, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, David J. Brillon, Richard M. Bergenstal, Peter J. Savage, Irene Hramiak, Joseph F. Largay, Ajay Sood, Hertzel C. Gerstein

Effects of calcium–vitamin D co-supplementation on metabolic profiles in vitamin D insufficient people with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled clinical trial
Marjan Tabesh, Leila Azadbakht, Elham Faghihimani, Maryam Tabesh, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

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Epidemiology

Combined effect of physical activity and leisure time sitting on long-term risk of incident obesity and metabolic risk factor clustering
Joshua A. Bell, Mark Hamer, G. David Batty, Archana Singh-Manoux, Séverine Sabia, Mika Kivimaki

Fracture risk in diabetic elderly men: the MrOS study
Nicola Napoli, Elsa S. Strotmeyer, Kristine E. Ensrud, Deborah E. Sellmeyer, Douglas C. Bauer, Andrew R. Hoffman, Thuy-Tien L. Dam, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Lisa Palermo, Eric S. Orwoll, Steven R. Cummings, Dennis M. Black, Ann V. Schwartz

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Islet Studies

Mig6 haploinsufficiency protects mice against streptozotocin-induced diabetes
Yi-Chun Chen, E. Scott Colvin, Katherine E. Griffin, Bernhard F. Maier, Patrick T. Fueger

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Immunology and Transplantation

Postoperative impaired glucose tolerance is an early predictor of pancreas graft failure
Shruti Mittal, Myura Nagendran, Rachel H. Franklin, Edward J. Sharples, Peter J. Friend, Stephen C. L. Gough

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Metabolism

Mechanisms behind the superior effects of interval vs continuous training on glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial
Kristian Karstoft, Kamilla Winding, Sine H. Knudsen, Noemi G. James, Maria M. Scheel, Jesper Olesen, Jens J. Holst, Bente K. Pedersen, Thomas P. J. Solomon

Estimates of insulin sensitivity from the intravenous-glucose-modified-clamp test depend on suppression of lipolysis in type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial
Sabine Kahl, Bettina Nowotny, Simon Piepel, Peter J. Nowotny, Klaus Strassburger, Christian Herder, Giovanni Pacini, Michael Roden

PNPLA3 variant I148M is associated with altered hepatic lipid composition in humans
Short Communication
Andreas Peter, Marketa Kovarova, Silvio Nadalin, Tomas Cermak, Alfred Königsrainer, Fausto Machicao, Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Erwin Schleicher

Glucagon regulates orexin A secretion in humans and rodents
Ayman M. Arafat, Przemyslaw Kaczmarek, Marek Skrzypski, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Pawel Kolodziejski, Aikaterini Adamidou, Stephan Ruhla, Dawid Szczepankiewicz, Maciej Sassek, Maria Billert, Bertram Wiedenmann, Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer, Krzysztof W. Nowak, Mathias Z. Strowski

Denatonium induces secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 through activation of bitter taste receptor pathways
Ki-Suk Kim, Josephine M. Egan, Hyeung-Jin Jang

PPARβ/δ prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells through an AMPK-dependent mechanism
Laia Salvadó, Emma Barroso, Anna Maria Gómez-Foix, Xavier Palomer, Liliane Michalik, Walter Wahli, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera

Central prolactin receptors (PRLRs) regulate hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice via signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the vagus nerve
Fei Xiao, Tingting Xia, Ziquan Lv, Qian Zhang, Yuzhong Xiao, Junjie Yu, Hao Liu, Jiali Deng, Yajie Guo, Chunxia Wang, Kai Li, Bin Liu, Shanghai Chen, Feifan Guo

Norathyriol reverses obesity- and high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance in mice through inhibition of PTP1B
Hanying Ding, Yan Zhang, Chen Xu, Dongxia Hou, Jing Li, Yujing Zhang, Wei Peng, Ke Zen, Chen-Yu Zhang, Xiaohong Jiang

Exosomes participate in the alteration of muscle homeostasis during lipid-induced insulin resistance in mice
Hala Aswad, Alexis Forterre, Oscar P. B. Wiklander, Guillaume Vial, Emmanuelle Danty-Berger, Audrey Jalabert, Antonin Lamazière, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Sandra Pesenti, Catherine Ott, Karim Chikh, Samir El-Andaloussi, Hubert Vidal, Etienne Lefai, Jennifer Rieusset, Sophie Rome

Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy results in insulin resistance in rat offspring, which is associated with inflammation and Iκbα methylation
Huaqi Zhang, Xia Chu, Yifan Huang, Gang Li, Yuxia Wang, Ying Li, Changhao Sun

DOC2 isoforms play dual roles in insulin secretion and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake
Jia Li, James Cantley, James G. Burchfield, Christopher C. Meoli, Jacqueline Stöckli, P. Tess Whitworth, Himani Pant, Rima Chaudhuri, Alexander J. A. Groffen, Matthijs Verhage, David E. James

Fermentable fibres condition colon microbiota and promote diabetogenesis in NOD mice
Raine K. Toivonen, Rohini Emani, Eveliina Munukka, Anniina Rintala, Asta Laiho, Sami Pietilä, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Pasi Soidinsalo, Mari Linhala, Erkki Eerola, Pentti Huovinen, Arno Hänninen

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Pathophysiology and Complications

Enterovirus RNA in longitudinal blood samples and risk of islet autoimmunity in children with a high genetic risk of type 1 diabetes: the MIDIA study
Ondrej Cinek, Lars C. Stene, Lenka Kramna, German Tapia, Sami Oikarinen, Elisabet Witsø, Trond Rasmussen, Peter A. Torjesen, Heikki Hyöty, Kjersti S. Rønningen

Association of the pattern recognition molecule H-ficolin with incident microalbuminuria in an inception cohort of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients: an 18 year follow-up study
Jakob A. Østergaard, Steffen Thiel, Peter Hovind, Charlotte B. Holt, Hans-Henrik Parving, Allan Flyvbjerg, Peter Rossing, Troels K. Hansen

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes
D. Margriet Ouwens, Eelco van Duinkerken, S. Niki M. Schoonenboom, Daniella Herzfeld de Wiza, Martin Klein, Larissa van Golen, Petra J. W. Pouwels, Frederik Barkhof, Annette C. Moll, Frank J. Snoek, Charlotte E. Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Michaela Diamant

Retinal vascular fractals predict long-term microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus: the Danish Cohort of Pediatric Diabetes 1987 (DCPD1987)
Rebecca Broe, Malin L. Rasmussen, Ulrik Frydkjaer-Olsen, Birthe S. Olsen, Henrik B. Mortensen, Tunde Peto, Jakob Grauslund

CD40 promotes the development of early diabetic retinopathy in mice
Jose-Andres C. Portillo, Jennifer A. Greene, Genevieve Okenka, Yanling Miao, Nader Sheibani, Timothy S. Kern, Carlos S. Subauste

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Letter

An explanation for recent discrepancies in levels of human circulating betatrophin
Zhiyao Fu, Abdul B. Abou-Samra, Ren Zhang

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Erratum

Erratum to: Mig6 haploinsufficiency protects mice against streptozotocin-induced diabetes
Yi-Chun Chen, E. Scott Colvin, Katherine E. Griffin, Bernhard F. Maier, Patrick T. Fueger

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