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Welcome to Diabetologia

Diabetologia publishes original clinical, translational and experimental research within the field of diabetes. We are interested in papers that convey new information or insight into any aspect of the condition, ranging from basic science to clinical applications. These are judged in terms of their scientific quality, novelty, relevance and interest to our broadly based readership.

Inside this issue Up front
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Precision Medicine Series

In the News

Study suggests omega-3 in mothers' diets may lower children's risk of type 1 diabetes

Read this new research by Dr Sari Niinistö at the National Institute of Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland and colleagues.
For further information contact Dr Niinistö (sari.niinisto@thl.fi).

Overweight/obese people with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of abnormal brain structure and cognitive problems

Read this new research by Dr Sunjung Yoon and Dr In Kyoon Lyoo (Ewha Brain Institute, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea), Hanbyul Cho (The Brain Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA), and colleagues in Korea and the USA.
For further information contact Dr Lyoo (inkylyoo@gmail.com).

Current issue: July 2017

July 2017 cover

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The cover picture shows a micrograph of a cross section of a human pancreatic lymph node from a non-diabetic donor. The CD3+ T cell zone (red) is clearly differentiated from the CD20+ B cell follicles (green). Several of the B cell follicles contain germinal centres. In the present issue of Diabetologia, Willcox et al report that this normal pancreatic lymph node structure becomes disorganised with the development of type 1 diabetes, with decreased germinal centre frequency and fewer follicular dendritic cell networks.

Cover credit: Dr A. Willcox, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK

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Up front

Sally Marshall

Competition for publication in Diabetologia is greater than ever, and less than 20% of papers are accepted. Of all the high-quality papers that appear in this month's issue I want to share with you four articles that I find to be of particular interest. These will be featured 'up front' in the print issue and here on our website. Sally Marshall, Editor


Diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents: basic biology
by Beata Lecka-Czernik

Bone fragility is a known pathological complication of diabetes. In this issue, Beata Lecka-Czernik (DOI 10.1007/s00125-017-4269-4) summarises basic research findings on the aetiology of increased fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diminished bone quality in diabetes is associated with attenuated bone remodelling. Multiple mechanisms contribute to diabetic bone syndrome including impairments in glucose metabolism, microvasculature and muscle endocrine function, as well as an accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). In addition, bone is a target for several glucose-lowering therapies, providing additional support for the concept that bone is an integral part of energy metabolism and that the bone safety of treatments for diabetes needs to be considered. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents: clinical outcomes
by Ann V. Schwartz

Fracture prevention is an important clinical goal in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Fracture risk is higher and, when a fracture does occur, recovery is more difficult in those with diabetes. In this issue, a review by Ann Schwartz (DOI 10.1007/s00125-017-4283-6) focuses on our understanding of key clinical considerations in the management of fracture risk in diabetes: fracture risk assessment, skeletal effects of glucose-lowering medications, and the effectiveness of standard approaches to fracture prevention in those with diabetes. Standard tools for fracture risk assessment, bone mineral density T-score and FRAX, are useful in older adults with diabetes but tend to underestimate risk. Diabetes-specific factors-longer duration, complications and poor glycaemic control-contribute to increased risk. Glucose-lowering medications vary in their effects on the skeleton, an important consideration for those with higher fracture risk. Although evidence is currently limited, standard osteoporosis medications appear to be effective in preventing bone loss and fracture in those with diabetes. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Lipoprotein lipase in hypothalamus is a key regulator of body weight gain and glucose homeostasis in mice
by Elise Laperrousaz, Valentine S. Moullé, Raphaël G. Denis, Nadim Kassis, Chloé Berland, Benoit Colsch, Xavier Fioramonti, Erwann Philippe, Amélie Lacombe, Charlotte Vanacker, Noémie Butin, Kimberley D. Bruce, Hong Wang, Yongping Wang, Yuanqing Gao, Cristina Garcia-Caceres, Vincent Prévot,, Matthias H. Tschöp, Robert H. Eckel,, Hervé Le Stunff, Serge Luquet, Christophe Magnan, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci

Brain hydrolysis of triacylglycerol-enriched particles may participate in the control of energy balance. In this issue, Laperrousaz et al (DOI 10.1007/s00125-017-4282-7) demonstrate that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) contributes to the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. Indeed, the partial deletion of Lpl in the MBH in mice leads to an increase in body weight gain compared with controls, associated with early glucose intolerance and lower locomotor activity before any change in body weight. Conversely, MBH-specific overexpression of Lpl induces a decrease in body weight. Interestingly, decreased LPL activity in the hypothalamus is accompanied by a transient drop in ceramide levels, which could mediate the metabolic changes towards anabolism. A better understanding of the implication of hypothalamic lipid metabolism in the regulation of energy homeostasis may potentially provide new therapeutic opportunities. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Hyperglycaemic memory affects the neurovascular unit of the retina in a diabetic mouse model
by Patrick Friedrichs, Andrea Schlotterer, Carsten Sticht, Matthias Kolibabka, Paulus Wohlfart, Axel Dietrich, Thomas Linn, Grietje Molema, Hans-Peter Hammes

After initial periods of hyperglycaemia, subsequent good glycaemic control fails to prevent the development and progression of diabetes complications; this phenomenon is termed hyperglycaemic memory. In this issue Friedrichs et al (DOI 10.1007/s00125-017-4254-y) report on how they established a mouse model of hyperglycaemic memory to study the underlying mechanisms and identify genes involved in the glucose-independent progression of diabetic retinopathy. After confirmation of persistent microvascular damage following blood glucose normalisation, the authors found that cytoskeletal and nuclear genes met the criteria of a memory-like regulation. The functions of these genes suggest the involvement of the entire neurovascular unit. These findings should direct the focus of future studies from cell-type-specific alterations towards disturbances of cell-cell communication within the neurovascular unit. [Text supplied by the authors.]

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Inside this issue

Up front

Up front July 2017

Reviews

Diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents: basic biology
Beata Lecka-Czernik

Diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents: clinical outcomes
Ann V. Schwartz

Commentaries

Antigen-specific immunotherapy and influenza vaccination in type 1 diabetes: timing is everything
Lorraine Yeo, Mark Peakman

The elusive role of B lymphocytes and islet autoantibodies in (human) type 1 diabetes
Stef J. Bloem, Bart O. Roep

Articles

Clinical Science and Care

A core outcome set for studies evaluating the effectiveness of prepregnancy care for women with pregestational diabetes
Aoife M. Egan, Sander Galjaard, Michael J. A. Maresh, Mary R. Loeken, Angela Napoli, Eleni Anastasiou, Eoin Noctor, Harold W. de Valk, Mireille van Poppel, Marie Todd, Valerie Smith, Declan Devane, Fidelma P. Dunne

Metabolic effects of insulin in a human model of ketoacidosis combining exposure to lipopolysaccharide and insulin deficiency: a randomised, controlled, crossover study in individuals with type 1 diabetes
Mads V. Svart, Nikolaj Rittig, Ulla Kampmann, Thomas S. Voss, Niels Møller, Niels Jessen

Brain changes in overweight/obese and normal-weight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Sujung Yoon, Hanbyul Cho, Jungyoon Kim, Do-Wan Lee, Geon Ha Kim, Young Sun Hong, Sohyeon Moon, Shinwon Park, Sunho Lee, Suji Lee, Sujin Bae, Donald C. Simonson, In Kyoon Lyoo

EASL–EASD–EASO clinical practice guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in severely obese people: do they lead to over-referral?
Short Communication
Emilie Blond, Emmanuel Disse, Charlotte Cuerq, Jocelyne Drai, Pierre-Jean Valette, Martine Laville, Charles Thivolet, Chantal Simon, Cyrielle Caussy

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Epidemiology

Fatty acid status in infancy is associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity
Sari Niinistö, Hanna-Mari Takkinen, Iris Erlund, Suvi Ahonen, Jorma Toppari, Jorma Ilonen, Riitta Veijola, Mikael Knip, Outi Vaarala, Suvi M. Virtanen

Data-driven metabolic subtypes predict future adverse events in individuals with type 1 diabetes
Raija Lithovius, Iiro Toppila, Valma Harjutsalo, Carol Forsblom, Per-Henrik Groop, Ville-Petteri Mäkinen, on behalf of the FinnDiane Study Group

Risks of asphyxia-related neonatal complications in offspring of mothers with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: the impact of maternal overweight and obesity
Sven Cnattingius, Anna Lindam, Martina Persson

Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal analysis from the Whitehall II cohort study
Adam Hulman, Rebecca K. Simmons, Eric J. Brunner, Daniel R. Witte, Kristine Færch, Dorte Vistisen, Satoyo Ikehara, Mika Kivimaki, Adam G. Tabák

Independent associations between a metabolic syndrome severity score and future diabetes by sex and race: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study and Jackson Heart Study
Matthew J. Gurka, Sherita H. Golden, Solomon K. Musani, Mario Sims, Abhishek Vishnu, Yi Guo, Michelle Cardel, Thomas A. Pearson, Mark D. DeBoer

How common are foot problems among individuals with diabetes? Diabetic foot ulcers in the Dutch population
Robert M. Stoekenbroek, Joost L.C. Lokin, Mark M. Nielen, Erik S.G. Stroes, Mark J.W. Koelemay

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Immunology and Transplantation

Effect of simultaneous vaccination with H1N1 and GAD-alum on GAD65-induced immune response
Beatriz Tavira, Mikael Cheramy, Stina Axelsson, Linda Åkerman, Johnny Ludvigsson, Rosaura Casas

Characterisation of rapid progressors to type 1 diabetes among children with HLA-conferred disease susceptibility
Petra M. Pöllänen, Johanna Lempainen, Antti-Pekka Laine, Jorma Toppari, Riitta Veijola, Paula Vähäsalo, Jorma Ilonen, Heli Siljander, Mikael Knip

Germinal centre frequency is decreased in pancreatic lymph nodes from individuals with recent-onset type 1 diabetes
Abby Willcox, Sarah J. Richardson, Lucy S. K. Walker, Sally C. Kent, Noel G. Morgan, Kathleen M. Gillespie

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Metabolism

SUCNR1-mediated chemotaxis of macrophages aggravates obesity-induced inflammation and diabetes
Janna A. van Diepen, Joris H. Robben, Guido J. Hooiveld, Claudia Carmone, Mohammad Alsady, Lily Boutens, Melissa Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, Anneke Hijmans, Udo F. H. Engelke, Ron A. Wevers, Mihai G. Netea, Cees J. Tack, Rinke Stienstra, Peter M. T. Deen

Lipoprotein lipase in hypothalamus is a key regulator of body weight gain and glucose homeostasis in mice
Elise Laperrousaz, Valentine S. Moullé, Raphaël G. Denis, Nadim Kassis, Chloé Berland, Benoit Colsch, Xavier Fioramonti, Erwann Philippe, Amélie Lacombe, Charlotte Vanacker, Noémie Butin, Kimberley D. Bruce, Hong Wang, Yongping Wang, Yuanqing Gao, Cristina Garcia-Caceres, Vincent Prévot, Matthias H. Tschöp, Robert H. Eckel, Hervé Le Stunff, Serge Luquet, Christophe Magnan, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci

Decreased basal hepatic glucose uptake in impaired fasting glucose
Mariam Alatrach, Christina Agyin, John Adams, Ralph A. DeFronzo, Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats
Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Dirk J. Stenvers, Remi D. Jansen, Ewout Foppen, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek

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Pathophysiology and Complications

Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus and prediabetes are characterised by a decreased incretin effect
Signe Foghsgaard, Louise Vedtofte, Camilla Andreasen, Emilie S. Andersen, Emilie Bahne, Jonatan I. Bagger, Jens A. Svare, Jens J. Holst, Tine D. Clausen, Elisabeth R. Mathiesen, Peter Damm, Filip K. Knop, Tina Vilsbøll

Hyperglycaemic memory affects the neurovascular unit of the retina in a diabetic mouse model
Short Communication
Patrick Friedrichs, Andrea Schlotterer, Carsten Sticht, Matthias Kolibabka, Paulus Wohlfart, Axel Dietrich, Thomas Linn, Grietje Molema, Hans-Peter Hammes

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Letter

Studies into severe famine in early life and diabetes in adulthood: the need to control for differences in participant age and location
Chihua Li, L. H. Lumey


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