Approved abbreviations and units of expression for use without definition

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A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W

A
acceleration due to gravity g
adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH
cyclic adenosine 3´,5´- monophosphate cyclic AMP
adenosine 5´-phosphate AMP
adenosine 5´-diphosphate ADP
adenosine 5´-triphosphate ATP
adenosine triphosphatase ATPase
advanced glycation end-product AGE
albumin excretion rate AER
ampère A
analysis of variance ANOVA
angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE
area under the curve AUC
atom per cent excess APE Back to top
B
base pair bp
becquerel Bq
blood pressure BP, express in mmHg
body mass index BMI
bovine serum albumin BSA
5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine BrdU Back to top
C
centimetre (square centimetre) cm (cm2)
chi-square χ2
coefficient of variance CV
coenzyme A and its acyl derivatives CoA and acyl-CoA
confidence interval CI
coronary heart disease CHD
correlation coefficient r
counts/minute; counts/second cpm; cps
cycles/second (frequency) Hz Back to top
D
dates 2 November 1998
degrees, Celsius or centigrade °C
degrees of freedom df
deoxyribonuclease DNase
deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial DCCT
4´,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole DAPI
dimethylsulphoxide DMSO
disintegrations/minute dpm
disintegrations/second dps
dissociation constant Kd
doses avoid Latin designations
(for instance, b. d. or t. i. d.)
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium DMEM Back to top
E
median effective dose ED50
electrocardiogram ECG
electroencephalogram EEG
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA
enzyme nomenclature see Enzyme Nomenclature
[1992, Academic Press,
San Diego ]
epidermal growth factor EGF
ethylene diamime tetra-acetic acid EDTA
ethylene glycol-O--bis(2-amino-ethyl)-N, N, N´,-tetraacetic acid EGTA Back to top
F
fetal calf serum FCS
flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced form) FADH2
fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC
fluorescence activated cell sorter FACS
fractional disappearance rate k
free fatty acids – not used;
use: non-esterified fatty acids
NEFA Back to top
G
gas chromatography GC
gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS
glomerular filtration rate GFR
glucose transporter GLUT
glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD
gram g
gravitational field, unit of g
cyclic guanosine 3´,5´-monophosphate cyclic GMP
guanosine 5´-phosphate GMP
guanosine 5´-diphosphate GDP
guanosine 5´-triphosphate GTP Back to top
H
haemoglobin concentration g/l
haemoglobin A1 HbA1
haemoglobin A1c HbA1c
half-life t1/2
hazard ratio HR
hertz Hz
high density lipoprotein HDL
high performance liquid chromatography HPLC
HLA nomenclature Bodmer et al. (1997)
hour h
human leucocyte antigen HLA
human umbilical vein endothelial cells HUVECs
Human Immunology 53:
98–128
4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulphonic
acid
HEPES Back to top
I
immunoglobulins A, D, E, G, M IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50
inner diameter i. d.
insulin-like growth factor IGF
insulin-receptor substrate IRS
interferon IFN
interleukin IL
intraperitoneal i. p.
intravenous i. v.
intravenous glucose tolerance test IVGTT Back to top
J
joule J Back to top
K
kilobase kb
kilocalories kcal
kilogram kg
Krebs-Ringer buffer KRB Back to top
L
median lethal dose LD50
lipoproteins (serum)  
    high density HDL
    low density LDL
    very low density VLDL
litre l (write in full if confusion
with numeral 1 possible)
logarithm (base 10) log10
logarithm (base e) ln
low density lipoprotein LDL Back to top
M
major histocompatibility complex MHC
mass spectrometry MS
maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY
messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA
metre (square metre) m (m2)
Michaelis constant Km
micromole µmol
micron (10–6 m) µm
milliequivalents not used; use: mmol/l
millilitre ml
millimetre (millimetre squared) mm (mm2)
millimetre of mercury mmHg for blood pressure (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa)
millimolar (concentration) mmol/l (not mM)
millimole mmol
milliunit mU
millivolt mV
minute (60 seconds) min
milliosmole mosmol
molar (concentration) mol/l (not M)
mole mol
molecular weight mol. wt or Mr (not daltons) Back to top
N
nanogram ng
neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin NPH insulin
nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide NAD if oxidation state
not indicated
NAD+ if oxidized
NADH if reduced
nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADP if oxidation state
not indicated
NADP+ if oxidized
NADPH if reduced
non-esterified fatty acid NEFA
non-obese diabetic mouse NOD mouse
not significant NS
number in a sample n Back to top
O
odds ratio OR
oral glucose tolerance test OGTT
osmolality express in osmol/kg or
mosmol/kg
Back to top
P
pascal Pa
per cent %
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase PEPCK
phosphate-buffered saline PBS
picogram pg
polymerase chain reaction PCR
pressure

express in kPa (except for blood pressure
and gas tensions) (1 kPa = 7.5 mm Hg)

probability of an event being due
to chance alone
p Back to top
R
radioimmunoassay RIA
rate constant k
relative risk RR
respiratory quotient RQ
restriction fragment length polymorphism RFLP
reverse transcription-polymerase chain
reaction
RT-PCR
revolutions rev
revolutions/minute rev/min (not rpm)
(use g if appropriate)
ribonuclease RNase
Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium RPMI medium Back to top
S
saline do not use; give strength
of solution (e. g. NaCl
154 mmol/l)
second (time) s
sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE
specific activity sp. act.
standard deviation SD
standard error of the mean SEM
steroid nomenclature see Eur J Biochem
(1989) 186: 429–458
subcutaneously s. c.
sum Σ Back to top
T
terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling TUNEL
thyroxine (3,3´,5,5´ tetraiodothyronine) T4
time of day e. g. 18:15 hours
transforming growth factor TGF
transport rate (maximum) Tm
triiodothyronine (3,3´,5- triiodothyronine) T3
tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane TRIS
tumour necrosis factor-α TNF-α Back to top
U
unit U Back to top
V
versus vs
very low density lipoprotein VLDL
maximum velocity Vmax
volt V Back to top
W
waist-to-hip ratio WHR
watt W
wavelength λ
World Health Organization WHO Back to top