Approved abbreviations and units of expression for use without definition

Back to instructions to authors

Go to A-Z by abbreviation

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W

A
acceleration of free fall g
adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH
cyclic adenosine 3´,5´- monophosphate cAMP
adenosine 5´-phosphate AMP
adenosine 5´-diphosphate ADP
adenosine 5´-triphosphate ATP
adenosine triphosphatase ATPase
advanced glycation end-product AGE
albumin excretion rate AER
American Diabetes Association ADA
ampère A
analysis of covariance ANCOVA
analysis of variance ANOVA
angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE
area under the curve AUC
atom per cent excess APE Back to top
B
base pair bp
becquerel Bq
blood pressure BP, express in mmHg
body mass index BMI
bovine serum albumin BSA
5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine BrdU Back to top
C
5'—C—phosphate—G—3' CpG
centimetre (square centimetre) cm (cm2)
chi-square χ2
cluster of differentiation CD
coefficient of variation CV
coenzyme A and its acyl derivatives CoA and acyl-CoA
confidence interval CI
coronary heart disease CHD
correlation coefficient r
counts/minute; counts/second cpm; cps
Cycle threshold Ct
cycles/second (frequency) Hz Back to top
D
dates 2 November 1998
degrees, Celsius or centigrade °C
degrees of freedom df
deoxyribonuclease DNase
deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial DCCT
4´,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole DAPI
dimethylsulphoxide DMSO
disintegrations/minute dpm
disintegrations/second dps
dissociation constant Kd
doses avoid Latin designations (for instance, b. d. or t. i. d.)
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium DMEM Back to top
E
median effective dose ED50
electrocardiogram ECG
electroencephalogram EEG
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA
epidermal growth factor EGF
estimated glomerular filtration rate eGFR
ethylene diamime tetra-acetic acid EDTA
ethylene glycol-O--bis(2-amino-ethyl)-N, N, N´,
-tetraacetic acid
EGTA
European Association for the Study of Diabetes EASD Back to top
F
fetal bovine serumFBS
fetal calf serum FCS
flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD
flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced form) FADH2
fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC
fluorescence activated cell sorter FACS
fractional disappearance rate k
free fatty acids – not used; use non-esterified
fatty acids
NEFA Back to top
G
gas chromatography GC
gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS
glomerular filtration rate GFR
glucose tolerance test GTT
glucose transporter GLUT
glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD
gram g
cyclic guanosine 3´,5´-monophosphate cGMP
guanosine 5´-phosphate GMP
guanosine 5´-diphosphate GDP
guanosine 5´-triphosphate GTP Back to top
H
haematoxylin and eosin H&E
haemoglobin concentration Hb (g/l)
haemoglobin A1 HbA1
haemoglobin A1c HbA1c
half-life t½
hazard ratio HR (NB does not apply to hazard rate)
hertz Hz
high-density lipoprotein HDL
high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC
HOMA of insulin resistance HOMA-IR
homeostasis model assessment HOMA
hour h
human leucocyte antigen HLA
human umbilical vein endothelial cell HUVEC
4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulphonic acid HEPES Back to top
I
immunoglobulins A, D, E, G, M IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
intermediate density lipoprotein IDL
International Classification of Diseases (9th Revision) ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision) ICD-10
half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50
inner diameter i.d.
insulin-like growth factor IGF
insulin-receptor substrate IRS
interferon IFN
interleukin IL
intraperitoneal i.p.
intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test IPGTT
intravenous i.v.
intravenous glucose tolerance test IVGTT Back to top
J
joule J
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (not strictly an abbreviation any more, as the organisation has changed its name to 'JDRF') JDRF Back to top
K
kilobase kb
kilocalorie kcal
kilogram kg
Krebs-Ringer buffer KRB Back to top
L
median lethal dose LD50
lipoproteins (serum)  
    intermediate density IDL
    high density HDL
    low density LDL
    very low density VLDL
litre l (write in full if confusion with numeral 1 possible)
logarithm (base 10) log10
logarithm (base e) loge
low-density lipoprotein LDL Back to top
M
magnetic resonance imaging MRI
major histocompatibility complex MHC
mass spectrometry MS
maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY
maximal oxygen consumption O2max
messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA
metre (square metre) m (m2)
Michaelis constant Km
micromole µmol
micron (10–6 m) µm
milliequivalents not used; use mmol/l
millilitre ml
millimetre (millimetre squared) mm (mm2)
millimetre of mercury mmHg for blood pressure (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa)
millimolar (concentration) mmol/l (not mM)
millimole mmol
milliunit mU
millivolt mV
minute (60 seconds) min
milliosmole mosmol
molar (concentration) mol/l (not M)
mole mol
molecular weight mol. wt or Mr (not daltons) Back to top
N
nanogram ng
neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin NPH insulin
nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide NAD if oxidation state not indicated, NAD+ if oxidised,
NADH if reduced
nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADP if oxidation state not indicated, NADP+ if oxidised,
NADPH if reduced
non-esterified fatty acid NEFA
non-obese diabetic mouse NOD mouse
not significant NS
nuclear factor κB NFκB
nuclear magnetic resonance NMR
number in a sample n Back to top
O
odds ratio OR
oral glucose tolerance test OGTT
osmolality express in osmol/kg or mosmol/kg
oxygen consumption O2 Back to top
P
parts per million ppm
pascal Pa
peak oxygen consumption O2peak
per cent %
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase PEPCK
phosphate-buffered saline PBS
phosphorylated protein p-[protein abbreviation/name]
picogram pg
polymerase chain reaction PCR
pressure express in kPa (except for blood pressure and gas tensions)
(1 kPa = 7.5 mm Hg)
probability of an event being due to chance alone p Back to top
Q
quantitative insulin sensitivity index QUICKI
R
radioimmunoassay RIA
radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer RIPA buffer
Randomised controlled trial RCT
rate constant k
relative risk or risk ratio; not rate ratio RR
respiratory quotient RQ
restriction fragment length polymorphism RFLP
reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR
revolutions rev
revolutions/minute rev/min (not rpm) (use g if appropriate)
ribonuclease RNase
ribonucleic acid RNA
Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium RPMI medium Back to top
S
saline do not use; give strength of solution (e. g. NaCl 154 mmol/l)
second (time) s
single nucleotide polymorphism SNP
sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis
SDS-PAGE
species (plural) Spp.
species (singular) Sp.
specific activity sp. act.
standard deviation SD
standard error SE
standard error of the mean SEM
subcutaneously s.c.
sum Σ Back to top
T
terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling TUNEL
thyroxine (3,3´,5,5´ tetraiodothyronine) T4
time of day e. g. 18:15 hours
transforming growth factor TGF
transport rate (maximum) Tm
triiodothyronine (3,3´,5- triiodothyronine) T3
tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane TRIS
tumour necrosis factor TNF Back to top
U
unit U Back to top
V
versus vs
very-low-density lipoprotein VLDL
maximum velocity Vmax
volt V Back to top
W
waist-to-hip ratio WHR
watt W
wavelength λ
wingless/Int-1 Wnt
World Health Organization WHO Back to top

A-Z by abbreviation

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W

Σ sum Back to top
λ wavelength
χ2 chi-square
A
A ampère
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADA American Diabetes Association
ADP adenosine 5´-diphosphate
AER albumin excretion rate
AGE advanced glycation end-product
AMP adenosine 5´-phosphate
ANOVA analysis of variance
APE atom per cent excess
ATP adenosine 5´-triphosphate
ATPase adenosine triphosphatase
AUC area under the curve Back to top
B
BMI body mass index
bp base pair
BP blood pressure (express in mmHg)
Bq becquerel
BrdU 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine
BSA bovine serum albumin Back to top
C
°C degrees, Celsius or centigrade
CHD coronary heart disease
CI confidence interval
cm centimetre
CoA and acyl-CoA coenzyme A and its acyl derivatives
cpm; cps counts/minute; counts/second
CV coefficient of variation
cAMP cyclic adenosine 3´,5´- monophosphate
cGMP cyclic guanosine 3´,5´-monophosphate
Ct Cycle threshold
Back to top
D
DAPI 4´,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole
DCCT Diabetes Control and Complications Trial
df degrees of freedom
DMEM Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
DMSO dimethylsulphoxide
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DNase deoxyribonuclease
dpm; dps disintegrations/minute; disintegrations/second
E
EASD European Association for the Study of Diabetes
ECG electrocardiogram
ED50 median effective dose
EDTA ethylene-diamime-N, N, N´, N´-tetraacetic acid
EEG electroencephalogram
EGF epidermal growth factor
eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
EGTA ethylene glycol-O--bis(2-amino-ethyl)-N, N, N´, N´
-tetraacetic acid
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Back to top
F
FACS fluorescence-activated cell sorter
FAD flavin adenine dinucleotide
FADH2 flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced form)
FBSfetal bovine serum
FCS fetal calf serum
FITC fluorescein isothiocyanate Back to top
G
g gram
g acceleration of free fall
GAD glutamic acid decarboxylase
GC gas chromatography
GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
GDP guanosine 5´-diphosphate
GFR glomerular filtration rate
GLUT glucose transporter
GMP guanosine 5´-phosphate
GTP guanosine 5´-triphosphate Back to top
H
h hour
H&E haematoxylin and eosin
Hb haemoglobin (g/l)
HbA1 haemoglobin A1
HbA1c haemoglobin A1c
HDL high-density lipoprotein
HEPES 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulphonic acid
HLA human leucocyte antigen
HOMA homeostasis model assessment
HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography
HR hazard ratio
HUVEC human umbilical vein encothelial cell
Hz hertz: cycles/second (frequency) Back to top
I
IC50 half maximal inhibitory concentration
ICD-9 International Classification of Diseases (9th Revision)
ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision)
i.d. inner diameter
IFN interferon
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM immunoglobulins A, D, E, G, M
IGF insulin-like growth factor
IL interleukin
i.p. intraperitoneal
IRS insulin-receptor substrate
i.v. intravenous
IVGTT intravenous glucose tolerance test Back to top
J
J joule
JDRF Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (not strictly an abbreviation any more, as the organisation has changed its name to 'JDRF') Back to top
K
k fractional disappearance rate
k rate constant
kb kilobase
Kd dissociation constant
kg kilogram
kJ kilojoule
Km Michaelis constant
KRB Krebs-Ringer buffer Back to top
L
l litre (write in full if confusion with numeral 1 possible)
LD50 median lethal dose
LDL low-density lipoprotein
log10 logarithm (base 10)
loge logarithm (base e) Back to top
M
μm micrometre (micron): 10-6 m
μmol micromole
m metre
MHC major histocompatibility complex
min minute (60 seconds)
ml millilitre
mm millimetre
mmHg millimetre of mercury: for blood pressure (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa)
mmol millimole
mmol/l millimolar (concentration) (not mΜ)
MODY maturity onset diabetes of the young
mol mole
mol. wt or Mr molecular weight (not daltons)
mol/l molar (concentration) (not Μ or mEq)
mosmol milliosmole
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid
MS mass spectrometry
mU milliunit
mV millivolt Back to top
N
n number in a sample
NAD if oxidation state not indicated, NAD+ if oxidised,
NADH if reduced
nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide
NADP if oxidation state not indicated,
NADP+ if oxidised, NADPH if reduced
nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NEFA non-esterified fatty acid (free fatty acid is not used)
NFκB nuclear factor κB
ng nanogram
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NOD mouse non-obese diabetic mouse
NPH insulin neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin
NS not significant Back to top
O
OGTT oral glucose tolerance test
OR odds ratio
osmol/kg or mosmol/kg osmolality Back to top
P
p probability of an event being due to chance alone
Pa pascal (use for pressure, except blood pressure
and gas tensions: 1 kPa = 7.5 mmHg)
PBS phosphate-buffered saline
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PEPCK phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
pg picogram
ppm parts per million Back to top
Q
QUICKI quantitative insulin sensitivity index
R
r correlation coefficient
RCT Randomised controlled trial
rev revolutions
rev/min revolutions/minute (not rpm) (use g if appropriate)
RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism
RIA radioimmunoassay
RIPA buffer radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer
RNase ribonuclease
RPMI medium Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium
RQ respiratory quotient
RR relative risk
RT-PCR reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction Back to top
S
s second (time)
s.c. subcutaneously
SD standard deviation
SDS-PAGE sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
SE standard error
SEM standard error of the mean
SNP single nucleotide polymorphism
Sp. species (singular)
Spp. species (plural)
sp. act. specific activity Back to top
T
t½ half-life
T3 triiodothyronine (3,3´,5- triiodothyronine)
T4 thyroxine (3,3´,5,5´ tetraiodothyronine)
TGF transforming growth factor
Tm transport rate (maximum)
TNF-α tumour necrosis factor-α
TRIS tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
TUNEL terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling Back to top
U
U unit Back to top
V
V volt
VLDL very-low-density lipoprotein
Vmax maximum velocity
O2 oxygen consumption
O2max maximal oxygen consumption
O2peak peak oxygen consumption
vs versus Back to top
W
W watt
WHO World Health Organization
WHR waist-to-hip ratio
Wnt wingless/Int-1 Back to top